Hydrogen plays a significant role in leading the world towards its net-zero emission goals. Global hydrogen demand reached 94 Mt in 2021, and it grew at a rate of 5% from that of 2020 demand. As per demand projections by IEA (2020), it is expected to grow over 500 MMt by the end of 2050 to achieve the global net-zero targets. Currently, Grey Hydrogen is the most widely used form, whereas the hydrogen from renewable sources (Green Hydrogen) is increasing exponentially and is expected to take more than 45 % share by 2050.

Figure: Global hydrogen production data between 2030 to 2050

In this report, we have covered various modes of production, storage, transportation, and applications of hydrogen between now and 2050.

Figure: Hydrogen network from production to end users.

Electrolysis is one of the promising methods of green hydrogen production. In 2021, 30 kt of hydrogen was produced globally, which was 0.04% of total production. At the moment, it is 3-4 times more costly than hydrogen produced from fossil fuels limiting its application to high-value products like electronics. In electrolyzer deployment capacity, Europe is leading the world with a 40 % share, whereas Australia is aiming to catch Europe in a few years. Among various types of electrolyzers, the AEM electrolyzer is emerging as a breakthrough technology with the collective advantages of PEM and Alkaline electrolyzers and is expected to become popular in the future.

Figure: Performance matrix of various types of electrolyzers

Through this report we provide specific information to a wide range of audiences who are interested in learning about these new technologies- such as upcoming start-ups, investors, government bodies, and other take a decision- makers on the technology adoption. It will also help the decision-makers to tweak strategies to attract investments based on the target set and actual developments in the green hydrogen sector.

In the current scenario, the use of a storage tank is the most economical and simplest way to store the hydrogen in the compressed form. Whereas the transportation of hydrogen through dedicated pipelines is the most favorable way of transport for large volumes and long distances, due to its low density, ease of dispersion, and embrittlement. For shorter distances and smaller volumes, a tube trailer is always preferred. As in 2023, the US has about 2,600 km of dedicated hydrogen pipeline, along with the world’s first long-distance pipeline between North America and Europe.

  • The report covers the technological advancements happening across the hydrogen value chain.
  • Which are the companies or R&D institutes who have the technology or commercialized products, across the hydrogen value chain?
  • Comparison of techno-commercial parameters of the technologies and also products offered by major suppliers.

Table of Contents

1. Executive Summary

  • Why do we need renewable energy
  • Introduction-Hydrogen
  • Types of Hydrogen
  • Hydrogen production, storage and consumption
  • Global trends in Hydrogen

2. Hydrogen supply chain overview 

3. Production of Hydrogen​

  • Global Hydrogen Demand
  • Global production of Hydrogen​: Natural Gas, Coal Gasification, Water Electrolysis, Biomass, Biomass Gasification
  • Comparison of Hydrogen Production Technologies
  • Carbon Capture​
  • Carbon Capture Technologies​
  • Global CO2 Capture Projects and cost
  • Key Players in CO2 Capture 

4. Storage of Hydrogen

  • Methods of storing Hydrogen: LOHC, Metal Hydrides, Liquefaction, Cryo-compression
  • Comparison of Hydrogen Storage Technologies

5. Transportation of Hydrogen​

  • Types of Transportation: Pipelines, Tube Trailer, Liquified on road, Ship​
  • Comparison - Modes of Transportation of Hydrogen
  • Existing Challenges​ - High Production Cost

​6. Hydrogen production using electrolyzers

7. Global Electrolyzers capacity Forecast: Global Installations of Electrolyzers

8. Types of electrolyzers: Basic design of electrolyzer system, Technology Variations (Alkaline, PEM, SOEC, AEM)

  • Comparison of electrolyzer Technologies
  • Commercially available Alkaline Electrolyzer
  • Commercially available PEM Electrolyzers
  • Cost breakdown of PEM electrolyzer system

9. Recent Advancement in Electrolyzers

10. Hydrogen application across Industrial, Power generation, Transportation. (2020 - 2050)

11. Industrial Applications

  • Urea Manufacturing
  • Steel Manufacturing
  • Oil Refineries

12. Fuel cells for Stationary applications

  • Basic design of Fuel Cell System
  • System Performance and Design Characteristics, Industry Progress Update, Key Players, Commercial Availability of various Fuel Cell systems:
    • Solid Oxide fuel cell
    • Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel cell
    • Phosphoric acid fuel cell
    • Molten Carbonate fuel cell
  • Performance matrix of fuel cell for various stationary applications
  • Hydrogen in Power generation - Gas turbine

13. Application of fuel cell for eMobility

  • Fuel cells for eMobility - Comparison with ICE
  • Comparison of Fuel Cell Technologies for eMobility
  • Companies actively developing PEMFC Technology for eMobility
  • Advancements in PEMFCs

14. Concluding remarks